How do writers make characters into people we can empathize with and understand? One way is through the use of characterization. But what is characterization? We’re going to answer that question by looking at example from Kill Bill, and by listening to the perspective of some of the world’s most foremost writers. But before we get into the examples, let’s review what makes direct characterization different from indirect characterization.

Watch: What is Characterization — 2 Types Explained

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What Does Characterization Mean

Let's define characterization

What is characterization? Is characterization a literary device? The most simple explanation is the process of creating a character. In fiction, the writer's job is to build their characters from the ground up — who are they, where are they from, what's their defining qualities, etc. But that doesn't mean that writers of non-fiction or biopics based on real people can ignore this process. 

Before we jump into some examples and the different types, let's define characterization and why it's important.


What is characterization?

Characterization is the process through which an artist communicates character to an audience. In writing, characterization is achieved through dialogue, actions, and descriptions. In visual mediums, characterization is still achieved through dialogue, actions, and descriptions, but it can also be achieved through costuming, hair and makeup, etc. The writer and/or director have made a series of decisions of how to present each character to the reader or audience. And so, everything they decide to include in this presentation is part of the characterization.

Types of Characterization:

  • Direct characterization
  • Indirect characterization
  • Third Person Referentia

Writers will often begin using character archetypes as a foundation but build on them with specific and individual layers of characterization. Let's look at the two main methods of how this is done. 

Types of Characterization

Direct vs. indirect characterization

There are two types of characterization: direct and indirect. These types are almost always used in conjunction to support each other. At the same time, it's important to realize that these types of characterization have their unique values and should be given equal attention when writing.

Direct: How a character appears — their physical appearance and profession.

Here’s an example of direct characterization in Goodfellas.

Characterization Examples  •  Direct Characterization in Goodfellas

We learn a lot about Jimmy’s (Robert De Niro) character just from his physical appearance — his slicked back hair, clean-shaven face, fine-tailored suit, etc. As a result, we’re able to tell that Jimmy is well-put together, or at the very least, he appears to be. 

Indirect: How a character operates — their actions, thoughts, and opinions.

Here’s an example of indirect characterization also from Goodfellas.

Characterization Examples  •  Indirect Characterization in Goodfellas 

In this scene, we learn about Jimmy’s character by what he says and what he does. That's why dialogue and actions are the two most important facets of indirect characterization.


A simple approach to characterization

It’s a lot easier to utilize characterization than you might think. One way to make sure you cover all the bases of characterization is to think about the acronym S.T.E.A.L. 

  • Speech: What a character says and how they say it; vernacular, accent, etc. 
  • Thoughts: What a character thinks and believes.
  • Effects on Others: How a character interacts with and influences others.
  • Actions: Everything a character does.
  • Looks: How a character looks and appears; clothing, hair, etc.

By using STEAL characterization, you’ll have the basics of characterization covered. However, if you’re going to create complex characters, you’re going to need to develop them beyond the basics. 

What is Characterization Used For in Scripts?

Round vs. Flat Characters

Characterization requires knowledge about what type of character you’re writing. And so, characters can be divided into two camps: round and flat.

A round character is deeply realized, with complexities, contradictions, and wants that are evocative of a real person. These characters are usually protagonists or other prominent roles in a film. 

A few examples: Clarice from Silence of the Lambs, Arthur in Joker, Gollum in Lord of the Rings, Michael in The Godfather. We could go on forever.
What is Characterization Gollum StudioBinder

Gollum is a round character

A flat character, meanwhile, is a character who lacks these complexities. Instead, they’re two-dimensional, with just one or two character traits which define them. Usually, these characters aren't the lead, and if they are, that might be a problem.

A flat character doesn’t mean a bad character. For example, some great flat characters include Karen in Mean Girls, Cinderella, and C-3PO.
What is Characterization C PO StudioBinder

C-3PO: flat and loveable

A round character usually means much more characterization. Usually, this characterization continues throughout a film. There’s so much ground to cover.

A flat character, meanwhile, means quick characterization. Is your character a jock? Show them throwing a football and shoving a nerd into a locker and you’re done. Are they a bad guy’s henchman? Show them in a dark robe bowing to the antagonist with a line like “Yes, master” and you’re done.

What is Characterization in Screenwriting?

What's characterization in screenwriting

What are some considerations writers have with characterization in screenwriting? This process can be achieved through many different methods in screenwriting — but the first, and arguably most important aspect of building a character, is their first description. 

In proper screenwriting format, whenever a new character is introduced in a screenplay, their name is written in all caps, along with a brief description of their physical appearance.

The first description is meant to give us an essential aspect of character. We imported the Kill Bill: Vol. 1 script into StudioBinder’s screenwriting software to take a closer look at how Quentin Tarantino introduces characters.

What’s Characterization to Tarantino?  •  Read the Kill Bill Screenplay

As you can see, The Bride’s introduction in the Kill Bill screenplay is clear. We’re shown who she is, what she’s doing, and where she might be going. But introductions are just one part of building a character — without development, characters will feel hollow. 

Let's watch the scene for more context.

Characterization Examples  •  Introducing the Bride

It’s taboo to write in a character’s internal thoughts/feelings into a screenplay. Therefore, you must use actions and dialogue to communicate how a character feels. Say a character is angry. You can’t just write “my character is angry.”

Characterization is one of the most important facets of storytelling. Perhaps it’s trite to say, but without characters we care about, a story collapses under its own weight. By utilizing S.T.E.A.L. and by heeding Tarantino you’ll be ready to build/develop complex characters.


Write stronger characters

There’s a lot that goes into making a great character — much more than we touched on in this post about characterization. Up next, we analyze how plot and tone are used to develop characters and create situational conflict. We’ll also show you how to use a character development worksheet to organize your character’s actions and beliefs from beginning to end.

Up Next: Character Development Worksheet →
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